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An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. The identifiable criterion is met when the intangible asset is separable (that is, when it can be sold, transferred or licensed), or where it arises from contractual or other legal rights.
Separately acquired intangible assets
Separately acquired intangible assets are recognised initially at cost. Cost comprises the purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes and any directly attributable costs of preparing the asset for its intended use. The purchase price of a separately acquired intangible asset incorporates assumptions about the probable economic future benefits that may be generated by the asset.
Internally generated intangible assets
The process of generating an intangible asset is divided into a research phase and a development phase. No intangible assets arising from the research phase may be recognised. Intangible assets arising from the development phase are recognised when the entity can demonstrate:
- its technical feasibility;
- its intention to complete the developments;
- its ability to use or sell the intangible asset;
- how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits (for example, the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset or for the intangible asset itself);
- the availability of resources to complete the development; and
- its ability to measure the attributable expenditure reliably.
Any expenditure written off during the research or development phase cannot subsequently be capitalised if the project meets the criteria for recognition at a later date.
The costs relating to many internally generated intangible items cannot be capitalised and are expensed as incurred. This includes research, start-up and advertising costs. Expenditure on internally generated brands, mastheads, customer lists, publishing titles and goodwill are not recognised as intangible assets.
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination
If an intangible asset is acquired in a business combination, both the probability and measurement criterion are always considered to be met. An intangible asset will therefore always be recognised, regardless of whether it has been previously recognised in the acquiree's financial statements.
Intangible assets are amortised unless they have an indefinite useful life. Amortisation is carried out on a systematic basis over the useful life of the intangible asset. An intangible asset has an indefinite useful life when, based on an analysis of all the relevant factors, there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash inflows for the entity.
Intangible assets with finite useful lives are considered for impairment when there is an indication that the asset has been impaired. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet in use are tested annually for impairment and whenever there is an indication of impairment.